The bacterium exists as spores which, in the right environment, release toxins that cause a flu-like syndrome which eventually destroys cells in lymph nodes, spreading to the lungs and blood, and may be highly lethal. Toxins that can be used as weapons include , , , , and many. In 1346, the bodies of warriors of the who had died of were thrown over the walls of the besieged city of. Extremely persistent in soil and water and on most surfaces; contact hazard. Water and food borne diseases include dysentery, E coli, Salmonella, cholera, and typhoid Hutchinson 237.
Current biological weapons arsenals, however, include diseases that are highly infectious and contagious, easy to produce and deploy, and able to cause high morbidity or mortality in human and animal populations. Depleted uranium weapons are proliferating and are likely to become commonly used in land warfare. In the , the company has designed BiosparQ. Civilians rarely had a warning system put into place to alert their neighbors of the danger. Slightly different numbers on the composition of the arsenal are given in ref. This article highlights the mental health consequences of a domestic terrorist incident involving chemical or biological weapons.
Nerve agents specifically, tabun, sarin, and cyclosarin and blister agents specifically, sulfur-mustard and lewisite were detected at Iraqi sites. The ease and rapidity of international transport of potential human and animal vectors, coupled with the increasing virulence and variety of human-selected and human-engineered disease organisms, are setting the stage for disease epidemic scenarios that could equal or surpass those of any known historical incident. Along with this is the fact that with certain organisms, only a few particles would be needed to start an infection that could potentially cause an epidemic. The cost of this procedure can outrun the cost of agent destruction many fold — in some cases by 10-20 times. It is building a new chemical-weapons factory near the city of Aleppo.
The Soviet Union also sponsored an anthrax weapon program; an accidental release of a small amount of weaponized anthrax from a military research facility in 1979 led to at least 70 deaths. About 80 percent are weaponized and consist mostly of organophosphorus nerve agents. No elaborate delivery technologies or methods are necessary for clandestine, economically targeted bioweapons attacks on agricultural crops or livestock. A British solution to the problem was the. While some articles deal with either civilian or military planning for such an event, others de- scribe policies, and a few delineate inferences drawn from drills or tabletop exercises in order to assess national crisis and consequence management capacity. The behind this , which has been or acceded to by as of April 2013, is to prevent a biological attack which could conceivably result in large numbers of and cause severe disruption to and.
The project unveiled many operational and logistic quandaries and exposed various potential effects of a bioterror attack in the military. Knowing the biological warfare pros and cons is a helpful means of gathering essential information regarding its nature, characteristics and effects to individuals. Data were collected using computer assisted telephone interview systems by stratified random sampling according to geographic area. Kinetic energy penetrators do not explode; they fragment and burn through armour due to the pyrophoric nature of uranium metal and the extreme flash temperatures generated on impact. In fact, a biological weapons program might also be within the technical and financial reach of a terrorist organization. Like some , biological weapons may also be useful as.
In addition, storing biological weapon agents requires much effort, due to the quick decay of many of these sorts of agents. Thermal dissemination devices, though common, are not particularly efficient. If the wind was fickle, as at , the gas could blow back, causing. Many nations possess vast of weaponized agents in preparation for wartime use. The droplet size used for persistent delivery goes up to 1 mm increasing the falling speed and therefore about 80% of the deployed agent reaches the ground, resulting in heavy contamination.
War and Shadows: The Haunting of Vietnam. Historian and philosopher , in his history of England, recounts how in the reign of r. At end of war military had been able to field mustard and phosgene. During World War I all parties used an estimated 124,000 tons of chemicals in warfare. On May 14, 2009 India informed the that it has completely destroyed its stockpile of chemical weapons.
While panic may be the immediate result of a terrorist attack, prolonged anxiety among individuals and society as a whole can be crippling. An estimated 580,000 Chinese people died as a result of the Japanese bioweapons program Martin et al. The direct use of infectious agents and against enemy personnel is an ancient practice in. Psychological distress was measured by a question related to subject's changes in perception of life, plus the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale. This was effectively a large-bore mortar, dug into the ground that used the gas cylinders themselves as projectiles - firing a 14 kg cylinder up to 1500 m. Of course, this applies until an individual or group perceives immediate threat of death or grave bodily injury. Lovell, Deputy Director for Research and Development of the Office of Strategic Services, reports in his book Of Spies and Stratagems that the Allies knew the Germans had quantities of Gas Blau available for use in the defense of the.
If all the preventive measures fail and there is a clear and present danger, then there is a need for detection of chemical attacks, collective protection, and decontamination. On December 11, 1966, fifteen gas bombs killed two people and injured thirty-five. The weaponized , , , and others. Unfortunately, this notion is completely flawed. Physicians will need to accurately diagnose anxiety, depression, bereavement, and organic brain syndromes to provide treatment, reassurance, and the relief of pain. Nevertheless, because of the nature of these weapons—as well as the potential for starting widespread , the difficulty of controlling disease effects, and the simple fear that they inspire—most countries have agreed to ban the entire class. Licensed vaccines are currently available for a few threats, such as anthrax and smallpox, and research is underway to develop and produce vaccines for other threats, such as tularemia, Ebola virus, and Marburg virus.