However, when that group of people ruled for personal gain, it was considered a despotic oligarchy. . It was so easy to depose their predecessors, so why not them? Doesn't that completely contradict any presumed association with the thirty tyrants? It gives us pause and forces us to examine our own government. Nevertheless, despite these criticisms from both sides, Solon succeeded in gaining social peace. For all of us living in America, we probably would be surprised to learn about what he thought was the best form of government. It is the basic requirement for philosophy.
Similarly, Aristotle was up until a year or two before his death, at least tutor to Alexander, and was thus associated with Macedon, which had subjugated Athens. In contrast to historical aristocracies, Plato's resembles a or proto- of sorts. Biographical information about Plato is fairly scarce. Plato believes that conflicting interests of different parts of society can be harmonized. And are the people so subjugated by senseless laws and stiff taxes, that they are unable to resist in any meaningful way? Relating to Plato and Aristotle, I will not even bother explain in detail. In addition, the political scientist must attend to existing constitutions even when they are bad. Plato predicts that this tyrant will appeal to the lowest form of citizen.
This ideal is most identifiable as a philosophic meritocratic aristocracy or monarchy. Brendan, The Household as the Foundation of Aristotle's Polis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. In timocracy the ruling class is made up primarily of those with a warrior-like character. Plato continues in his discussion by explaining that the these leaders will eventually become unpopular, an unavoidable result. In shallow religiosity, like in , there is ignorance and no knowledge of the self either. Social and economic differences, i.
The first group were the philosopher kings thatruled logic and wisdom. There are three politically possible answers to the first question one, some and all:the kingship, aristocracy, and politeia , and two politically possible answers to the second the holder of power, and everyone. Peaceful change in these nations is much less likely as the rulers often do not rule with the consent of the governed. They will approach ruling not as something really enjoyable, but as something necessary 347c-d. However Plato believed there was a far more sinister nature to democracy. For his method often leads to divergent interpretations.
They are able to see the distorted shadows of things that are going by but not the actual thing itself. He then turns against the ambitions he had in his soul, which he now sees as harmful, and puts in their place craving for money, instead of honor, and a parsimonious cautiousness. It might be easy to assume that Plato held a grudge over the death of his mentor. Such ignorance in politics is the cause of mistakes and evils 118a. It is a complex and ambiguous concept.
Plato envisages for this philosopher a disposition and ability that makes him the ideal governor of any state precisely because his soul knows the Idea of the Good, which is the metaphysical origin of all that is good, including happiness itself. The old man of means Cephalus suggests the first definition. His claim to rule is that he is the best. If so, in what ways? The aristocrats were the political elite who had once held power before the time of Solon the Lawgiver, but they were tightly connected to the oligarchy, the wealthy merchants and landowners, who were practically the new aristocracy with all the influence they wielded. So Plato proposed a fifth alternative: he proposed that the most educated and intellectually competent men in the cities should be allowed to rule.
A benevolent tyrant, he would having complete power over his people and exercise it in keeping his people safe and secure. The notion of final cause dominates Aristotle's Politics from the opening lines: Since we see that every city-state is a sort of community and that every community is established for the sake of some good for everyone does everything for the sake of what they believe to be good , it is clear that every community aims at some good, and the community which has the most authority of all and includes all the others aims highest, that is, at the good with the most authority. But is Plato advocating against a democratic form of government? The only reason the government failed was because power was allowed to centralize to the point that a tyrant was able to take over. The existence of the city-state also requires an efficient cause, namely, its ruler. You have to build the foundation first, because without the foundation the hous … e would come crumbling down, or actually would never be there. I hope this helps to answer your question.
Governments are formed to make laws have leaders to keep our nation united and strong. The intent of government is to create security and stability in society. The constitution also provides for impeachment proceedings, which allows the populace to remove the executive, albeit by proxy through the House and Senate. Now what did Socrates think? The Quest for Justice in The Republic One of the most fundamental ethical and political concepts is justice. In the sense of actual knowledge, comprehension of the higher … forms is the highest thought that can be achieved.
Aristotle treats kingship and aristocracy as an ideal constitution run by morally and practically virtuous people and aiming at the development and exercise of virtue. He is consumed by the basest pleasures in life, and being granted these pleasures at a whim destroys the type of pleasure only attainable through knowing pain. Oligarchy just naturally evolves from timocracy because a nation indulged in war will accumulate a lot of wealth and it will lose its respect for excellence. The philosophy of Plato is marked by the usage of dialectic, a method of discussion involving ever more profound insights into the nature of reality, and by cognitive optimism, a belief in the capacity of the human mind to attain the truth and to use this truth for the rational and virtuous ordering of human affairs. When, however, he witnesses the problems his father faces due to those timocratic tendencies — say, he wastes public goods in a military campaign, and then is brought before the court, losing his properties after trial — the future oligarch becomes poor. Aristotle accordingly rejects utopian schemes such as the proposal in Plato's Republic that children and property should belong to all the citizens in common. In both the Republic and the Laws, Plato identifies education as one of the most important aspects of a healthy state.
The Laws is an oddly pragmatic account of the political and does not feature Socrates. Their political authority is not only rational but also substantially moral, based on the consent of the governed. Government's earliest roots were from farming communities where different families and people of different origins wanted a rule of law to resolve conflicts and to keep order. An aristocracy changes mildly into a timocracy or government of honor. Perhaps perusing Plato's Laws and Xenophon's Socratic works may help sharpen the boundaries between the political philosophies of Plato's Socrates, Xenophon's Socrates, Socrates, and Plato. The tyrant will pay them to protect him from the ordinary citizens.