There were to be regular meetings between this alliance and to help each other in suppressing any disturbances within the nations. However, when the French danger was over, the unity among the Allies was gone and every Power decided to deal individually with her diplomacy. If one state becomes much stronger than others, the theory predicts it will take advantage of its strength and attack weaker neighbors, thereby providing an incentive for those threatened to unite in a defensive coalition. The ruler of Monaco was ordered to improve the administrative system of his country. However, such a state of affairs could not last long and the matters were precipitated by the intervention of France in Spain. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.
Specifically, the members of the Congress were all afraid of a strong France, so they created strong border states. Image Above Delegates at the Congress of Vienna. Even Murat, who previously had been left as king of Naples, was now deposed and the Bourbon monarchy restored. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord 23. Switzerland was enlarged and Swiss neutrality was established.
Napoleon launched his final European military campaigns. France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria, and Russia made major territorial gains. The principle of intervention in the internal affairs of the States divided the Powers into two camps. After some eventful , Napoleon was once more taken care of and the Congress was able to conclude its assembly with the German: Wiener Schlussakte signed on June 9, 1815. The Netherlands and the Italian Kingdom of Piedmont were created to this end.
Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania, and 40% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Neither the forces of conservatism nor those of nationalism and liberalism derived unmitigated benefits from it. But in so far as it came to serve the purposes of the Holy Alliance and of at least some partners of the Quadruple Alliance, it was a disturbing force in Europe. Also, the idea that the European nations had to help each other out so that things would remain status quo. Lesson Summary After Napoleon's defeat, the Treaty of Paris, signed on May 30, 1814, reestablished the French monarchy, replaced France's borders, and shipped Napoleon off to exile on the island of Elba.
Prussia would get some of Saxony and pieces of Rhineland and Westphalia. The Congress of Vienna took a number of steps to restore peace inEurope, which included reestablishing old physical boundaries aswell as the authority of leaders. She is currently completing a book entitled Conquering Peace: From the Enlightenment to the European Union for Harvard University Press. As these details were being ironed out in Vienna, another problem suddenly arose. Metternich was one of main architects of the balance of power in Europe and approached the matter from a perspective of conservatism. The pope regained his temporal possessions. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the introduction of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands.
Russia gained parts of Poland. Participants of the Congress The leading participants of the Congress of Vienna were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich, and Tsar Alexander I of Russia, all of whom had a reactionary, conservative vision for Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, favoring stability and the status quo over liberal progress. The last part of the war against Napoleon was known as the War of Liberation in Germany. But in all, the Congress of Vienna was a success, in that their goal was to design a political landscape wherein no one power could dominate. He saw that a harsh treaty based on vengeance and retaliation against France would fail, and anyway the conservative Bourbons were back in power. Helena Exiled on Elba, Napoleon's empire was reduced to a small island off the coast of Italy.
The consequences of this territorial rearrangement were to be far-reaching. In addition, there were representatives of cities, corporations, religious organizations for instance, abbeys , and special interest groups e. In 1818 the British decided not to become involved in continental issues that did not directly affect them. Russia denounced this claim, since it claimed to be the protector of all Eastern Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. German political history for the rest of the century was to be about the attempts to keep control of the state by that old Prussian ruling class.
These were anarchy in South America and consequently Englishmen suffered a great deal on account of attacks on their ships. Her interests were secure because the Barbary Pirates respected the Union Jack. Faced with the danger of a resurgent France restoring its Italian position by means of a family compact and an appeal to constitutionalism, he managed to isolate France and to reduce her to impotence. The Napoleonic invasions of central Europe reinforced German nationalism. It was discovered by experience that the Congress system could mean generalizing, and so magnifying every dispute; it meant altering governments everywhere whenever there was an insurrection anywhere. Napoleon was shipped to St Helena, a forlorn British possession in the South Atlantic, where he stayed out of mischief until his death.
The decisions regarding Germany reached during the deliberations in Vienna followed a middle course between and reaction, avoiding extreme fragmentation as well as rigid centralization. The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and creating independent national states. Cunning found a powerful ally in the U. As a result, the political boundaries laid down by the Congress of Vienna lasted, except for one or two changes, for more than 40 years. Under the Concert of Europe, the major European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and after 1818 France—pledged to meet regularly to resolve differences.